Until the end of the Cold War the specific situation of the defense and security sector in southeast Europe (SEE) did not allow for the development of independent and professional research on the topic of democratic control of armed forces and defense structures. Transparency of the military sphere and democratic civilian control over the defense sector were unattainable; and so was the instilment of democratic values inside military organizations. In addition, the totalitarian societies instituted a strict division between civilian and military education during the Cold War era. Consequently, by the time of the early 1990s, no theoretical or educational establishment of civil-military relations (C-M-R) existed in the SEE region.